Photographies: Ces enfants qui travaillaient dans les usines de Winchendon, Massachusetts (septembre 1911)

Le photographe Lewis Wickes Hine s’est impliqué au début du XXe siècle, avec le National Child Labor Committee, dans la lutte contre l’exploitation du travail des enfants aux États-Unis. Il a parcouru plusieurs villes américaines pour photographier ces enfants. Vous pouvez voir une partie de son travail à  Burlington, Vermont ,  Lowell, Massachusetts et New Bedford, Massachusetts et Manchester, New Hampshire. Voici maintenant certaines des photographies prises à Winchendon, Massachusetts. Elles proviennent du site web de la Library of Congress.

Comparison of ages: On right end is Mary Deschene, admitted 11 years, helped sister spool all summer in Glenallen Mill. Next her is Lumina Demarais, admitted 12 years, and doffing all summer in Spring Village Mill. Next is Rosina Coyette, said she was 14 but Mr. Hine doubted it; has steady job doffing and spinning in Spring Village Mill. Left end is Eva Caonette, spinner in Spring Village Mall, said she was 14 but may not be. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
A modest young French girl of 13 years. Spinner in the Spring Village Mill, runs six sides. Mr. Hine saw her working Sept. 2. Said, "I'd rather work." Been working since last February. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Adrienne Pagnette, an adolescent French illiterate, speaks almost no English. Is probably 14 or 15. Doffs on top floor spinning room in Glenallen Mill. Her brother Francis has a regular job doffing. Said he is 15 but Mr. Hine doubted it. Her sister Anna said she was 12 years old and helped older sister in Glenallen Mill. Been at it all summer. She stands next to Adrienne in Photo 2396, and in 2396A (taller girl). Photo 2396 shows the entire family of 17 members, 8 or 10 of them in the mill. Almost every one of them illiterate. Stooping, reaching and pushing heavy boxes is bad for young girls adolescent. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Family of Adrienne Pagnette: The three standing in front row are Adrienne, Anna and Francis. Adrienne, an adolescent French Illiterate. Speaks almost no English. Is probably 14 or 15. Doffs on top floor spinning room of Glenallen Mill. Anna, said she was 12 years old and helped older sister in Mill. Been at it all summer. She stands next Adrienne. Francis, has regular job doffing (see photo 239)...) (i.e., 2399?)). Says he is 15 but Mr. Hine Doubted it. Family consists of 17 members, 8 or 10 of them in the mill; almost every one of them illiterate. Stooping, reaching and pushing heavy boxes is bad for young girl adolescent. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Elizabeth Demaris (i.e., Demarais? )13 years old. A spinner in the Spring Village Mill, Winchendon, Mass. Been working since May. Lumina Demaris, sister of Elizabeth, admitted 12 years old. Been a doffer in Spring Village Mill all summer, Father and sister Elizabeth works steady. They keep two boarders. Her doffing crew has three girls and 5 boys. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Batise Joseph. Winchendon. Doffer in Glenakkeb (i.e., Glenallen) Mill. Father and Mother said, "He is 12 years old. Has been doffing all summer. Will go to school." Query: Will he go to school? Another boy, 13 years old, in this mill said, "I'll stay at work until they come after me." Older sister and parents illiterate. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Clerinda Norrin, said 11 years old and helps sister spin in Glenallen Mill. Winchendon, Mass. September 3, 1911. Richard K. Conant, Witness. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Mamie La Barge at her Machine. Under legal age.Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts."
Smallest is Anatole Gernon, Maple St. Apparently 11 or 12 years old. Doffs on top floor spinning room of Glenallen Mill. Speaks no English. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Mamie La Barge at her Machine. Under legal age.Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts."
Mamie La Barge. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Elizabeth Demarais (i.e., Demaris?), 13 years old. A spinner in the Spring Village Mill, been working since May.Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Group of workers going to work at 6:45 A.M. In Spring Village Mill. In this group are Mamie La Barge, Elizabeth and Lumina Demarais, Als de Gauthier, Erena La Prise (See previous labels for data.). Location: Winchendon, Massachuset
Group of sweepers and doffers in the filling spinning room of Glenallen Mill. The boys were smuggled out of the back window during hours by second hand. All work. Smallest boy is Francis Pagnette. Also Henry Smith. Maple Street. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Smallest is Anatole Gernon, Maple St. Apparently 11 or 12 years old. Doffs on top floor spinning room of Glenallen Mill. Speaks no English. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Lumina Demarais, admitted 12 years ol(d) Been doffing in Spring Mill all summer. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Rosina Goyette, Maple St. Apparently 12 but says she is 14; has steady job doffi(ng) and spinning in Spring Village Mill. She said at first she had been working six months, later she changed it to three weeks. Her partner said, "a few weeks." Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Comparison of Ages: Feft (i.e., left) end, Marion Deschere, just passed 13 years. Helps sister in mill "some." Next is Mildred Greenwood, "going on 14." Goes to school. Next is Mamie La Barge, 13 years, but said 14 years. Right end is Rosina Goyette, said 14, probably 12 or 13. Mamie and Rosina have steady jobs. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Mamie La Barge at her Machine. Under legal age. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Mamie and her sister Eglantine, about 15 yr. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Eglantine La Barge, an adolescent spinner, working in Spring Village Mill for 2 Years. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Mamie La Barge and a part of her family of which there are 13 in all, nine in the mill. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Mamie and her sisters and brothers who work in the mill. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Mamie La Barge, September 30, '11. See #2364. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Elizabeth Demarais (i.e., Demaris?), 13 years old. A spinner in the Spring Village Mill, been working since May. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
In doorway is Mary Deschene, 11 years old. Helper in Glenallen Mill. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Erenne La Prise, a doffer, apparently 13 year(s) old, doffing at his machine in Spring Village Mill. Said he had been working a year and a half. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Erenne La Prise, on left, apparently 13 years old, a doffer at Spring Village Mill, said he had been working a year and a half. Als de Gauthier, apparently under 14 (next Erenne) also a doffer at Spring Village Mill. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Group fo (i.e., of) workers going to work at 6:45 A.M. In Spring Village Mill. In this group are Mamie La Barge, Elizabeth and Lumina Demarais, Als de Gauthier, Erena La Prise (See previous labels for data.) Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Illiterate 19-year-old sister of B. Joseph. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Clerinda Norrin, Said 11 years old and helps sister spin in Glenallen Mill. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Annie Dugas, spinner at machine on top floor of Glenallen Mill. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
On left is Anna Pagnette; said 12 yrs. old, has been helping sister in Glenallen Mill all summer. On right is Alice Dugas; said 11 years old and helps sister Annie spin Glenallen Mill. Annie said, "She helps me quite a lot." Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Group of Workers in Glenallen Mill, including Adrienne Pagnette, Annie Dugas, Francis Pagnette, Anatole Gernon, apparently 11 or 12 years old, doffs on top floor spinning room of the above mill. Speaks no English. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.
Group of sweepers and doffers in the filling spinning room of Glenallen Mill. The boys were smuggled out of back window during hours by second hand. All work. Smallest boy is Francis Pagnette. Also Henry Smith, Maple Street. Location: Winchendon, Massachusetts.

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7 réflexions sur “Photographies: Ces enfants qui travaillaient dans les usines de Winchendon, Massachusetts (septembre 1911)

  1. « Doff » veut dire ôter. J’ai trouvé ceci en anglais, en parlant d’une usine de coton:

    The yarn was built up on the spindle in cylindrical form, and at regular intervals it was removed, or « doffed », and the whole process restarted.

    (avec l’aide de Google Translate)

    Le fil a été formée sur la broche en forme cylindrique, et à intervalles réguliers, il a été retiré, ou « ôté », et l’ensemble du processus redémarré.

    « Doffing » veut dire aussi ôter les bobines pleine de fil, mais je me demande si des enfants n’étaient pas assez habiles pour ça.

    J'aime

  2. @nuage1962 ça nous fait réaliser à quel point on est chanceux aujourd’hui
    @Pierre et @Ruth Merci
    @cafardages Oui, beaucoup de Canadiens-français sur ces photos. J’ai aussi vu des Portugais sur d’autres photos, ainsi que des gens avec des noms anglophones, mais dont je ne peux identifier avec certitude l’origine.
    @Dave Un grand merci pour l’explication de ce terme.

    J'aime

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